Nursing Care of Preschoolers

Chapter 32


Nursing Care of Preschoolers



Growth and Development



Developmental Timetable





Five Years



Physical: height and weight increase similar to previous year


Motor



Sensory



Vocalization and socialization



Mental abilities (Piaget’s phase of intuitive thought)




Health Promotion of Preschoolers





Hospitalization of Preschoolers




General Nursing Care of Preschoolers




Health Problems Most Common in Preschoolers



Leukemia



Data Base



Cancer of blood-forming organs; overproduction of immature, nonfunctioning leukocytes


Incidence: most common type of childhood cancer; prognosis is improving



Classification



Clinical findings



Therapeutic interventions



1. Chemotherapy: protocols for AML and ALL are different; each protocol is based on child and disease factors (see Chapter 3, Integral Aspects of Nursing Care, Neoplastic Disorders, Related Pharmacology)



2. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); not performed during first remission


3. Transfusions to replace and provide needed blood factors (e.g., RBCs, platelets, WBCs)



Nursing Care of Children with Leukemia




Planning/Implementation




1. Encourage adjustment to chronic illness; stress need for maintaining lifestyle


2. Identify perception of illness and death based on level of understanding



3. Support while experiencing side effects of medications; administer prescribed antiemetics (e.g., ondansetron) before chemotherapy


4. Encourage adequate nutrition despite anorexia; provide preferred foods, even hot dogs


5. Teach infection prevention: hand washing; avoiding contact with those with active infections; avoiding crowded places


6. Handle gently to reduce pain, risk for hemorrhage


7. Use pain rating scale and medicate appropriately


8. Provide gentle oral hygiene: use soft-tipped applicator; saline mouth rinses; offer soft, bland foods; cool liquids/food rather than cold or hot


9. Provide for frequent rest periods; quiet play


Mar 17, 2017 | Posted by in NURSING | Comments Off on Nursing Care of Preschoolers
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