Disorders of the Integumentary System


CHAPTER 12






Disorders of the Integumentary System


 

 





LEARNING OUTCOMES






 


Upon completion of this chapter, the nurse will:



1.  Summarize the different disorders of the integumentary system


2.  Examine approaches to assess different disorders of the integumentary system


3.  Differentiate integumentary system disorders from manifestations of systemic health problems


SKIN DISORDERS: LESIONS


Skin disorders can be divided into primary or secondary lesions. Primary lesions include:



  Cyst


  Macule or patch


  Nodule or tumor


  Papule or plaque


  Pustule


  Vesicle or bulla


  Wheal


Secondary lesions include:



  Atrophy


  Crust


  Erosion


  Fissure


  Keloid


  Lichenification


  Scales


  Scar


  Ulcer


Assessing for the presence of these lesions may be challenging when providing telephonic care; however, a great deal of information can be collected through asking focused questions.


Assessing Skin Lesions































Primary Lesion


Question


Cyst


Do you have any raised areas on the skin that feel like they are filled with fluid?


Macule or patch


Do you have any freckles or other areas on your skin that are small, round, and of a different color than the rest of your skin?


Nodule or tumor


Do you have any areas on the skin that feel hard or semisoft and seem to be deeper in the skin surface?


Papule or plaque


Do you have any skin areas that are elevated and solid like warts or moles?


Pustule


Do you have any skin areas that are oozing white–yellow colored fluid?


Vesicle or bulla


Do you have any blisters on your skin?


Wheal


Do you have any reddened areas on your skin that appear to be the result of an insect bite or hives?


 





































Secondary Lesion


Question


Atrophy


Do you have any skin areas that appear thin, wrinkled, dry, and like tissue paper?


Crust


Do you have any scabs on your skin?


Erosion


Do you have any scratches on your skin?


Fissure


Do you have any cracks on the corners of your mouth or on your hands/feet?


Keloid


Do you have any scar areas that are large and raised?


Lichenification


Do you have any rough thickened areas that are rubbed consistently like on the elbows or knees?


Scales


Do you have any small pieces of flaking skin like dandruff?


Scar


Do you have any areas where the skin has healed and has left a mark?


Ulcer


Do you have any areas where the layers of the skin have been eroded?


SKIN DISORDERS: RASHES


Rashes or areas of the skin that are red and irritated can be caused by many things. The most frequent reasons for a rash include:



  Medications


  Allergies (food, chemicals, or environment)


  Systemic illness (infectious diseases)


It can be difficult to assess rashes when providing telephonic care; however, you can assess for possible causes for the disorder. When assessing, keep in mind that some rashes have distinctive patterns such as the rash associated with:



  Tinea fungal infections (round in appearance)


  Lyme disease (bull’s eye appearance)


  Linear along a nerve root (herpes zoster)

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Oct 5, 2017 | Posted by in NURSING | Comments Off on Disorders of the Integumentary System
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