androgens contributes to the loss of lean body mass and insulin resistance reduces the ability to use protein. Prolactin, a hormone that helps maintain body fat, increases with age. These changes in body composition are one of the reasons why calorie needs decrease with aging.
Decrease in lean body mass
Decrease in basal metabolic rate
Increase in fat tissue
Decrease in physical activity
Difficulty in chewing related to loss of teeth and periodontal disease
Constipation is more common and may be related to decreased peristalsis from loss of abdominal muscle tone, inadequate fluid and fiber intake, secondary reaction to drug therapy, or a decrease in physical activity.
Digestive disorders may occur from a decreased secretion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach and digestive enzymes, decreased GI motility, and decreased organ function.
Prevalence of atrophic gastritis increases
Nutrient absorption may decrease because of decreased mucosal mass and decreased blood flow to and from the mucosal villi.
Altered glucose tolerance; the underlying reason may be a decrease in insulin secretion or a decrease in tissue sensitivity to insulin.
Synthesis of vitamin D in the skin decreases with age.
Tremors, slowed reaction time, short-term memory deficits, personality changes, and depression may occur secondary to a decrease in the number of brain cells or the decrease in blood flow to the brain.
Ability to concentrate urine decreases
Hearing loss, loss of visual acuity, decreased sense of smell, decreased number of taste buds, and decreased sensation of thirst
Change in income related to retirement
Reliance on medications
Social isolation related to death of spouse, living alone, impaired mobility
Poor self-esteem related to change in body image, lack of productivity, feelings of aimlessness
and weight gain in addition to improving cardiovascular and muscular fitness, preventing falls, reducing depression, and improving cognitive function (USDHHS, 2008).
Two hours and 30 minutes a week of moderate intensity or 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate-and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity and
Muscle strengthening activities that work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, arms) performed on 2 or more days per week
Five hours (300 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, or 2 hours and 30 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity physical activity, or an equivalent combination of both and
Muscle-strengthening activities that work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, arms) performed on 2 or more days per week
Physical activity is safe for almost everyone and the health benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks.
People without diagnosed chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, or osteoarthritis) and who do not have symptoms (e.g., chest pain or pressure, dizziness, or joint pain) do not need to consult with a health-care provider about physical activity. If the given recommendations are not possible due to limiting chronic conditions, older adults should be as physically active as their abilities allow. For all individuals, some activity is better than none.
Older adults should do exercises that maintain or improve balance if they are at risk of falling.
Consume a calorie-appropriate healthy eating pattern
Eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, lean protein foods, and low-fat or fat-free dairy
Choose foods low in added sugars and saturated fats
Limit sodium to 2300 mg
Drink alcohol only in moderation
calcium, and vitamin D—the nutrients of public health concern. Women age 50 years and older and men age 71 years and older may also underconsume the protein group.
whole and fortified grains, low-fat and nonfat dairy milk and dairy products, lean proteins, and oils. Noteworthy features are as follows:
Figure 13.1 ▲ MyPlate for Older Adults. (Source: Copyright © 2016 Tufts University. For details about the MyPlate for Older Adults, please see hnrca.tufts.edu/myplate/files/MPFOA2015.pdf.)
Nutrient-dense food choices are used to illustrate each food group. As calorie needs decrease, there is less room for empty-calorie foods that are high in solid fats or added sugar.
The examples of foods featured on the plate are convenient, affordable, and readily available. For instance, frozen broccoli and canned legumes are shown because they are easy to prepare and have a long shelf life.
Low-sodium canned vegetables appear as an option to help lower sodium intake.
A variety of beverages are featured next to the plate to highlight the importance of adequate fluid intake.
The use of herbs and spices is recommended to enhance flavors and reduce the use of salt.
Older adults engaged in common activities appear in an icon on the bottom of the placemat as a reminder that there are a variety of options for engaging in physical activity.
need more protein, their intake is less than that of younger adults. Approximately one-third of adults over the age of 50 years do not even meet the RDA for protein (Houston et al., 2008). Factors that may contribute to a decrease in protein intake include the cost of high-protein foods, the decreased ability to chew meats, lower overall calorie intake, and changes in digestion and gastric emptying.
Look for ways to combine foods from the different food groups in creative ways. You can do this while continuing to eat familiar foods that reflect your cultural, ethnic, or family traditions.
Experiment with ethnic foods, regional dishes, or vegetarian recipes.
Try out different kinds of fruits, vegetables, and grains that add color to your meals.
Try new recipes from friends, newspapers, magazines, television cooking shows, or cooking websites.
Take a cooking class to learn new ways to prepare meals and snacks that are good for you. Grocery stores, culinary schools, community centers, and adult education programs offer these classes.
Eat reasonable amounts of food and stay within your calorie needs for the day.
Select main dishes that include vegetables, such as salads, vegetable stir fries, or kebabs.
Order your food baked, broiled, or grilled instead of fried.
Make sure it is thoroughly cooked, especially dishes with meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.
Choose dishes without gravies or creamy sauces.
Ask for salad dressing on the side so you can control the amount you eat.
Ordering half portions or splitting a dish with a friend can help keep calorie intake down.