Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation

Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation

Providing temporary support for the heart’s left ventricle, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) mechanically displaces blood within the aorta by means of an intra-aortic balloon attached to an external pump console. The balloon is usually inserted through the common femoral artery and positioned with its tip just distal to the left subclavian artery. When used correctly, IABC improves two key aspects of myocardial physiology: it increases the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium, and it decreases myocardial oxygen demand and consumption.

IABC is recommended for patients with a wide range of low-cardiac-output disorders or cardiac instability, including refractory anginas, ventricular arrhythmias associated with ischemia, pump failure caused by cardiogenic shock, intraoperative myocardial infarction (MI), or low cardiac output after bypass surgery. IABC is also indicated for patients with low cardiac output secondary to acute mechanical defects after MI (such as ventricular septal defect, papillary muscle rupture, or left ventricular aneurysm).

Perioperatively, the technique is used to support and stabilize patients with a suspected high-grade lesion who are undergoing such procedures as angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, cardiac surgery, and cardiac catheterization.

IABC is contraindicated in patients with end-stage renal disease, irreversible brain damage, severe aortic regurgitation, aortic aneurysm, or severe peripheral vascular disease.

The doctor removes the balloon when the patient’s hemodynamic status remains stable after the frequency of balloon augmentation is decreased.

Preparation of Equipment

When assisting with insertion, you or a perfusionist must zero and balance the pressure transducer in the external pump console and calibrate the oscilloscope monitor to ensure accuracy depending on your facility’s policy.

When maintaining IABC, have the defibrillator, the suction setup, the temporary pacemaker setup, and emergency medications readily available in case the patient develops severe complications.

Jul 21, 2016 | Posted by in NURSING | Comments Off on Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation

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