Eleven Steps to Putting It All Together With or Without Concept Mapping
After reading the chapter, the following questions should be answered:
What is concept mapping?
How should you focus your assessment for a particular individual?
How do you write a care plan if you have not met the individual?
What additional information should you add to the care plan?
After providing care, how do you evaluate the individual’s progress?
What Is Concept Mapping?
“Concept mapping is a technique that can help you organize data for analysis. It uses diagrams to demonstrate the relationship of one concept or piece of information to other concepts or pieces of information” (Carpenito-Moyet, 2007). This is useful for students and others, who are new to care planning and nursing diagnoses.
Concept mapping can help you
Explain relationships of data
Identify both strengths and risk factors in individuals
Determine whether there is sufficient data to support your diagnosis
The concept map is composed of a center circle with a ring of outer circles that are connected to the center circle. This is the diagram that you can use to map clinical data on the individual.
Sample concept maps for an individual are shown below and on the following pages. The individual’s strengths are mapped below:
His risk factors are mapped below:
Throughout the 11 steps you can use concept mapping to help organize the data.
Now you have learned the five steps in the nursing process in Chapter 5, you will have the tools to create a plan of care (or care plan) for the individual.
Step 1: Assessment
Transitional Risk Assessment Plan
On admission, the individual needs to be assessed for their vulnerability for infection, pressure ulcers, falls, and delayed transition. Use the evidence-based assessment tools in Appendix D.
If you need to write a care plan before you can interview the individual, go to Step 2 now. If you interview the individual before you write your care plan, complete your assessment using the form recommended by your faculty.
After you complete your assessment, you will need to identify
Problems in one or more Functional Health Patterns
When someone is ill, there is an obvious focus on the illness, problems, and risk factors. Unfortunately, strengths are often overlooked. Everyone has strengths. Some have more than others. Our strengths help us through hard times. With sudden illness, trauma, or deteriorating conditions, the strengths of the individual and family can be mobilized to cope effectively. Sometimes the strength of individuals and families are not obvious. Search for them!
Ask the person or significant other: What gives your hope? Why do you want to get better? Nurse/Student. What are your strengths?
Strengths are qualities or factors that will help the person to recover, cope with stressors, and progress to his or her original health or as close as possible prior to hospitalization, illness, or surgery. The individual’s strengths can be used to motivate him or her to perform some difficult activities. Some examples of strengths include
Positive spiritual framework
Positive support system
Ability to perform self-care
No eating difficulties
Effective sleep habits
Alertness and good memory
Ability to relax most of the time
Internal locus of control
Independent with self-responsibility
Write a list of the individual’s strengths or use a concept map with strengths as the center.
Risk factors are situations, personal characteristics, disabilities, or medical conditions that can hinder the person’s ability to heal, cope with stressors, and progress to his or her original health prior to hospitalization, illness, or surgery. Examples of risk factors are as follows:
No or ineffective support system
Substance abuse (alcohol, tobacco, drugs)
No or little regular exercise
Inadequate or poor nutritional habits
Poor coping skills
Limited ability to speak or understand English
Self-care problems before hospitalization
Write a list of risk factors for the individual or create a concept map of risk factors.